Livingstone's 1871 Field Diary

A Multispectral Critical Edition

Terms   People & Tribes    Places   Geographical Entities
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Terms  [top]
chitoka: A "market" in the languages of the African tribes settled in and near Nyangwe, including the Wagenya (see People & Tribes). The anthropologist Yuji Ankei, who travelled along the Lualaba River in the vicinity of Nyangwe in the 1970s, records continued, wide-spread usage of the word (1985:92, 94-95).
viramba: In nineteenth-century Congo, a locally produced cloth woven from grass.
zingifure: A plant found near Nyangwe. Described by Livingstone in the 1871 Field Diary as follows: "It is known in India and here is used by the Manyema to dye virambas and ornament their faces and heads" (297c/107; cf. 297c/123). Elsewhere in the diary, Livingstone records that zingifure is "declared to be a good remedy for curing the itch which plagues very many both Arabs and natives" (297c/132). At the behest of Jo Anthony of the National Trust for Scotland, Frances Cook of Kew's Centre for Economic Botany recently researched into and identified this plant as Bixa orellana (Mzingifuri in Swahili).
 
People & Tribes  [top]
Abed: An Arab slave and ivory trader, and one of the first Arab settlers in Nyangwe. Abed attempted to help Livingstone continue his travels and also produced the Zingifure ink with which Livingstone wrote the 1871 Field Diary.
Bagenya: Also known as the Wagenya. The Wagenya are one of three tribes, all with the same name but ethnically distinct, residing in the Congo along the Lualaba River (Droogers 1980:31). Through their access to canoes, the Wagenya near Nyangwe both controlled the river traffic in the vicinity of the village and were the principal suppliers of fish to many of the local markets in the region.
Balegga: Also known as the Lega. An African tribe residing in eastern Congo. Biebuyck (1973:3) notes that "Legaland covers the valleys of the middle and upper Elila and the upper Ulindi rivers."
Banian Slaves: A group of liberated slaves hired by John Kirk, the acting Consul and Political Resident at Zanzibar, to assist Livingstone. These slaves were a constant source of irritation to Livingstone due to their resistance to his travel plans and their attempts to turn the local population at Nyangwe against him. Banians were an offshoot of the Indian merchant class at Muscat and were important traders in Zanzibar (Sheriff 1987:84).
Banyamwezi / Wanyamwezi: Also known as the Nyamwezi. An East African tribe. In the nineteenth century, the Nyamwezi served as the principal caravan porters for most significant Arab and African expeditions into the interior of East Africa (Rockel 2006).
Bogharib: Mohamad Bogharib, also Mohammed bin Gharib. A liberated Swahili slave turned ivory and slave trader, with whom Livingstone had previously travelled in 1867-68. Although known locally in Central Africa for the violence of his followers, Bogharib himself treated Livingstone kindly and was even entrusted to carry some of Livingstone's letters to the coast (Livingstone 1871a:10703/37r; 1874 passim). Bogharib's departure for Manyema in 1869 roughly coincided with Livingstone's own.
Chimburu / Kimburu: An African chief of the Bagenya people. His attempt to form an alliance with Manilla, an African slave, helped incite the Nyangwe massacre.
Chumah: Also known as Chuma. A member of the Yao tribe residing near Lake Nyassa and a former Portuguese slave freed by Livingstone's Zambesi Expedition party and the members of the Universities Mission in July 1861. Livingstone took Chuma to India after the Zambesi Expedition (1858-63) and collected him prior to the 1866 expedition. Chuma was with Livingstone when the latter died and helped transport Livingstone's body to the African coast. He spoke good English and provided Waller with a narrative of Livingstone's last days (Seaver 1957:389; Jeal 1973:296; Helly 1987).
Dugumbe: An Arab slave and ivory trader. Dugumbe's followers were the main instigators of the Nyangwe massacre. Prior to the massacre, Livingstone had planned to travel west of the Lualaba River to the Lomami River with Dugumbe's party (Livingstone 1871a:297b/142ff.; Jeal 1973: 334).
Hassani: An Arab slave and ivory trader, and one of the first Arab settlers in Nyangwe. Known locally in Nyangwe for his violence, Hassani was also suspected by Livingstone of stirring up the Banian slaves to rebel against the latter.
Kalenga / Karenga: An African chief based near Nyangwe, possibly of the Wagenya tribe. Livingstone failed to negotiate with Kalenga for the purchase of a canoe in May and June 1871, and ultimately sent his followers to flog Kalenga although the latter fled.
Karenga: See entry for "Kalenga."
Katomba: Also known as Moenemokaia. An Arab slave and ivory trader based at Mamohela in eastern Congo.
Kimburu: See entry for "Chimburu."
Kirk: Sir John Kirk (1832-1922). Doctor, naturalist, and later political agent. Kirk served as Livingstone's chief assistant during the Zambesi Expedition, and was appointed Surgeon to the British Agency in Zanzibar in 1866 through Livingstone's influence. During the period in question Kirk was acting Consul and Political Resident at Zanzibar (Jeal 1973:299, 322; McMullen 2004).
Manilla: A slave of Syde bin Habib, a well known Arab trader whom Livingstone had met at Linyati in 1853 and again in 1868-69 in Central Africa. The Arabs of Nyangwe claimed to have started the Nyangwe massacre as retaliation for Manilla's efforts to form an alliance with Chimburu, an African chief residing near Nyangwe.
Manyema / Manyuema: Also known as Maniema. Not an actual tribe, but rather a term used by Livingstone and other explorers to refer collectively to the inhabitants of Manyema, a region in eastern Congo roughly bordering the Lomami River to the west, Katanga to the south, Lakes Tanganyika and Kivu to the east, and the territory of Stanley Falls to the north (Cornet 1955:10). Also see Places.
Matereka: An Arab trader based in Kasongo.
Moenemokaia: See entry for "Katomba."
Mokandira: An African chief and one of the headmen of Nyangwe.
Rashid: An Arab slave trader active in the general area of Nyangwe during the period in question.
Shereef: Shereef Bosher. An Arab trader. Shereef and Awathe, another Arab trader, had been dispatched from the coast in 1869 by Ludha Damji, "the richest Banian in Zanzibar," to supply Livingstone with goods and men. Shereef then spent fourteen months on the journey to Ujiji, while systematically plundering Livingstone of his goods. As a result, when Livingstone returned to Ujiji in October 1871, he found that virtually nothing remained and that Shereef had sold off all Livingstone's goods "for slaves & ivory" (Livingstone 1871a:16-1/172ar; [1871h] 1872:10ff.).
Susi: An African of the Shupanga tribe. When he first met Livingstone in August 1858, Susi was employed in the service of Major Tito Sicard, the Commandant of Tete, who was then stationed in Shupanga. Livingstone took Susi to India after the Zambesi expedition (1858-63) and collected him prior to the 1866 expedition. Susi was with Livingstone when the latter died and helped transport Livingstone's body to the African coast. He spoke good English and provided Waller with a narrative of Livingstone's last days (Seaver 1957:329; Jeal 1973:296, 308; Helly 1987).
Tagamoio: Also known as Mtagamoyo or Mwini Mohara. An Arab trader and the chief perpetrator of the Nyangwe massacre. Tagamoio would eventually become one of the leading Arabs at Nyangwe and would only be brought down and killed by Belgian forces in 1893 (Wissman 1890:176-95; Hinde 1895:433).
Wanyamwezi: See entry for "Banyamwezi."
 
Places  [top]
Bambarre: Also known as Bambare, Kabambare, and Kabambarre. A village in the region of Manyema, eastern Congo. Livingstone stayed here from 21 September to 1 November 1869, 19 to 26 December 1869, and 22 July 1870 to 16 February 1871.
Kasongo: A village in the region of Manyema, eastern Congo, lying to the east of the Lualaba River. One of the key nineteenth-century outposts for Zanzibari traders (Sheriff 1987:190).
Katanga: A large region in the southern Congo. During the period in question, the region was ruled by Msiri and known for its underground mines and for resources such as copper, gold, and malachite (Sheriff 1987:187).
Manyema / Manyuema: Also known as Maniema. A region in eastern Congo roughly bordering the Lomami River to the west, Katanga to the south, Lakes Tanganyika and Kivu to the east, and the territory of Stanley Falls to the north (Cornet 1955:10). Also see People & Tribes.
Nyangwe: A village and marketplace on the banks of the Lualaba River in the region of Manyema, eastern Congo. Livingstone stayed here 23 March to 20 July 1871 and wrote most of the 1871 Field Diary in this village. Yuji Ankei, an anthropologist who visited the region where Nyangwe lies in the 1970s, noted that the market at Nyangwe had been abandoned only in 1962 (1985:94).
Rua: Now known as Lubaland. The site of a major African empire in the nineteenth century. Anne Wilson (1972:575) writes that "in the mid-nineteenth century the Luba Lomami empire controlled most of the region between the Lubilash and Lake Tanganyika, and between the forest and the northern part of the copper belt." For more on this region and its inhabitants, see Reefe 1981 and Roberts 1996.
Ujiji: A village on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. In the nineteenth century, Ujiji was one of the major trading depots in the Arab-African trading network of East Africa.
Zanzibar: An island off the east coast of Africa, now a part of Tanzania. In the nineteenth century, Zanzibar was the center of Arab-African trading network of East Africa, a major international depot, and the site of a notorious slave market.
 
Geographical Entities  [top]
Kamolondo: A fictitious lake in southern Congo that Livingstone erroneously believed to be part of the Nile River system.
Kunda: A tributary of the Lualaba River in eastern Congo.
Lake Lincoln: A fictitious lake in central Congo that Livingstone named after the American president. Livingstone erroneously believed the lake to be part of the Nile River system.
Lindi: A tributary of the Lualaba River in eastern Congo.
Loeki: See entry for "Lomame."
Lofubu: See entry for "Lomame."
Lomame / Lomamo / Loeki / Lofubu / Lualaba West: Also known as the Lomami or Lomani. A major river in central Congo. The Lomami joins the Lualaba to form the Congo River.
Lomamo: See entry for "Lomame."
Lualaba: A major river in eastern Congo. Livingstone believed that the Lualaba formed part of the Nile River system, but in fact the river joins the Lomami River to become the Congo River.
Lualaba West: See entry for "Lomane."
Lufira: A tributary of the Lualaba River in eastern Congo. Livingstone believed that the Lufira flowed into the fictitious Lake Kamolondo.
Tanganyika: The longest freshwater lake in Africa (and in the world) and the second largest African lake after Lake Victoria.
Manuscript Composition