still unknown … Zanzibar
See note for "My work leads … [cont. to page 1v] … Zanzibar"
above, page 1r.
Bakers plan Waller had
written to Livingstone that "Sir Samuel Baker is at the head of a host
of Egyptians pushing on into the upper Nile districts. Ostensibly he goes to
put down the slave trade there; has £10,000 a year for doing it
&c!" (Waller 1869a). In early 1869, Isma’il (r.1863-79), Khedive of Egypt, appointed Baker as governor-general of the equatorial Nile basin for a four-year term. Isma’il instructed Baker to annex the equatorial Nile basin, establish Egyptian authority over the region south of Gondokoro, suppress the slave trade, introduce cotton cultivation, organize a network of trading stations throughout the annexed territories, and open the great lakes near the equator to navigation (Ofcansky 2008; cf. Gray 1961:88; Baker 1873-74; 1874).
conquering the small … slaves Two practices facilitated the advance of Turco-Egyptian slave traders into regions south of Khartoum. First, using armed Arab servants, the slave traders established permanent interior stations known as "zeribas." Second, the slave traders exploited rivalries among local African populations for the purposes of the cattle, slave, and ivory raids known as "razzias" (Wisnicki 2010:5; cf. Gray 1861:27-69).
no large chief … detail Livingstone here (and elsewhere, e.g., [1871a] 1872:9) glosses over a complex set of political and social circumstances. The savanna lands of southern Maniema also constituted part of the northernmost province of the Bantu-speaking Luba empire (Wilson 1972:557, 581). This empire was not culturally homogenous, but instead consisted of a "complex ethnic mosaic, full of distinct groupings by lineage, clan, politics, and geography […]." Although it had a central ruler and could exert force, the empire depended foremost on trade and on a "flexible set of relationships that extended in a wide circle of influence rather than authority" (Roberts and Roberts 1996:20; cf. Reefe 1981:148-52), a situation that Livingstone’s observation fails to capture. However, because southern Maniema was a frontier region, one located at the edge of the rainforest, the inhabitants of the region also had political and social affinities with the Sudanic-speaking peoples of northern Maniema, who – as per Livingstone’s impressions – were "[d]istributed very sparsely over the land, much more mobile, and much less involved in trade than others," and so whose "societies were more fragmented into tiny autonomous groups than anywhere else" (Vansina 1990:186).
the Egyptian expeditions under the French Livingstone here refers to the French ivory and slave traders, for instance Alphonse de Malzac and Jean-Alexandre Vayssière, who operated out of Egypt and the Sudan in the 1850s and early 1860s and who, through their use of Arab mercenaries, became known for "deeds of widespread cruelty and injustice" to the local populations of the Sudan (Gray 1961:21, 41, 47).
My packet … destroyed In his journal, Livingstone (1866-72:13 May 1869; 1874,2:8) notes
that "I have been busy writing letters home and finished forty two which in some measure will make up for my long silence." Elsewhere Livingstone ([1871b] 1872:10) describes the contents of this packet as "despatches, copies of all the astronomical observations from the coast onward" – namely from when Livingstone landed on the east African coast in late March 1866 –
"and sketch maps on tracing paper, intended to convey a clear idea of all the discoveries up to the time of arrival at Ujiji" on 14 March 1869. Livingstone (1866-72:29 May 1869; 1874,2:11-12) attempted to entrust the packet to Thani bin Suellim, an agent at Ujiji of the Governor of Unyanyembe, and offered "two cloths and four bunches of beads" for the conveyance. Thani at first refused, saying "he was afraid of English letters – he did not know what was inside," but on further entreaty accepted the packet. It was then heard of no more. Livingstone (1870-71a:LXXXIV) discovered the disappearance of the letters only when the ten men from Kirk reached him:
4th February, 1871 – Ten of my men from the coast have come near to Bambarre and will arrive today [–] I am extremely thankful to hear it for it assures me that my packet of letters was not destroyed – they know at home by this time what has detained me and the end to which I strain.
D[itt]o. Only one letter reached and 40 are missing.
Of the letters written between mid August 1868 and 29 May 1869 – the day that Livingstone handed over his packet – only three survive because Livingstone copied them into his journal: Lord Stanley (26 Mar. 1869), Abdallah (19 Apr. 1869), and Said Majid (20 Apr. 1869) (Livingstone 1866-72; Clendennen and Cunningham 1979:82-83). The letter that did reach the coast (Livingstone [1869a]
n.d.) was not part of the packet but carried separately by another traveller, Musa Kamaals.
The governor… 1000 dollars The Governor of Unyanyembe was Said bin Salim Buraschid (c.1815-c.1879), also known as Said bin Salim al Lamki. Born at Kilwa and previously the governor of Saadani, Said bin Salim first came to the notice of British explorers when Said Majid, the Sultan of Zanzibar, appointed him "ras kafilah, or caravan-guide" for the East African Expedition (EAE) of Burton and Speke of 1856-59 (Burton 1860,1:10). Although Uvira, which lies on the northwestern shore of Lake Tanganyika, was indeed the furthest interior point reached by the EAE, Burton (1860,2:126-27) suggests that Said bin Salim did not accompany the expedition on the last leg of its journey. Burton continuously complained of Said bin Salim’s conduct, and the latter was eventually dismissed because of his thievery (Burton 1860,2:237-38). For a set of complex reasons, when Burton and Speke sailed from African they failed to pay the wages of their African and Arab attendants, including those of Said bin Salim, who had been promised a thousand dollars and a gold watch. After an extended dispute, the Government in Bombay paid the outstanding debt (Brodie 1967:182-83, 186; Simpson 1976:23-24; for the relevant correspondence, see Burton 1860,2:430-41).
Burton Richard Francis Burton (1821-90), explorer, author, and translator.
He was soured … destroyed Elsewhere, Livingstone ( [1870c] 1872:4; see also 1866-72:18 Mar. 1866) describes this incident in greater detail: "When I sent a stock of goods to be place in
depot at Ujiji to await my arrival [in March 1866], the Banyamwezi porters, as usual, brought them honestly to Unyanyembe; the Governor [Said bin Salim] then gave them in charge to his slave Saloom [Musa bin Salim], who stopped the caravan ten days in the way hither, while he plundered it and went off to buy ivory for his master in Karague." Livingstone did not discover the theft until his own arrival at Ujiji in March 1869; he conjectured Said bin Salim had ample grounds for destroying the letters because of the plundering and any censure or retribution that might ensue.
went off to Karagwe to buy ivory Karagwe, a region in northwest Tanzania, just west of Lake Victoria, played an important role in East African trade in the mid to late nineteenth century. Although its resources were relatively scant, "it was strategically located not only for the exchange of commodities of long-distance trade with the coast, but also of those in the regional trading networks" that linked Unyanyembe with Rwanda and Buganda (Sheriff 1987:183-84).
His agent … "the contents" See note for "My
packet … destroyed" above. The agent was Thani bin Suellim.
I regret … [cont. to
Page 1v – right margin] … at Ujiji For the period in question, Livingstone recorded all his astronomical observations in a dedicated notebook, which has indeed survived (Livingstone 1866-68). The original despatch from Bangweolo was written to the Earl of Clarendon in July 1868 (Livingstone [1868c] 1869-70), while the supplementary despatch, which also survives because Livingstone copied it into his journal (1866-72, see above), was written to Lord Stanley on 26 March 1869.
The gross carelessness … altogether John Arrowsmith (1790-1873), geographer and cartographer. Arrowsmith produced the maps for both
Missionary Travels (1857) and the book Livingstone and his brother Charles co-authored,
Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi (1865). Livingstone found Arrowsmith’s leisurely pace of working irritable. As a result of Arrowsmith’s delay in completing the map for the Zambesi Expedition narrative, the book was not published until Livingstone had left England for his final journey (Ransford 1978:232). This, and the subsequent reference to Arrowsmith, touch on the cause of this delay, namely that Arrowsmith initially based the Zambesi map on rough sketches Livingstone and John Kirk sent from Africa to the Royal Geographical Society council. Information Livingstone provided at the end of the expedition forced Arrowsmith to alter the map, so Arrowsmith charged Livingstone and his publisher, John Murray, £300 for the additional
labor. During his final expedition, Livingstone remained embittered towards Arrowsmith and refused to share his notes with the RGS council: "I sent [Arrowsmith] the two volumes of observations from the Zambesi. [H]e could make nothing of them. So if [I] can help it neither observation nor sketch nor note shall go to the Geographical till after publication" (Livingstone [1868b] n.d.:1v).
Murray John Murray (1808-92), publisher.
your wife Alice Brown, daughter of Thomas Brown of Kent. Horace Waller married Alice on 13 April 1869 (Helly 2008).
The Governor’s statement … such See note for "My
packet ... destroyed," above.
A. then charged … council "A." is John Arrowsmith. For the incident discussed here, see note
for "The gross carelessness … altogether" above.