Also Bambare, Kabambare, or Kabambarre. A village in Manyema, eastern
Congo (see below). Livingstone stayed here from 21 September to 1
November 1869, 19 to 26 December 1869, and 22 July 1870 to 16 February 1871.
During the last period he was confined to his hut from 22 July to 10 October
1870 because of what he describes as "irritable ulcers on the feet"
(1870-71a:X). When Livingstone finally left Bambarre on 16
February 1871, he entrusted this letter to an Arab trader named Mohamad
Bogharib, with whom Livingstone had previously traveled. Bogharib intended
to return to Zanzibar in the near future (Livingstone 1870-71b:LXII).
However, six months later, as Livingstone was again passing through Manyema
on his way back to Ujiji, he heard that Bogharib was "still at Bambarre
with all my letters" (Livingstone 1870-71a:18 Aug. 1871; 1874:2.151). Upon
reaching Bambarre, Livingstone was able to confirm the truth of the rumor.
In a later letter to Waller, Livingstone wrote: "I received two [sic]
letters from you in February last and answered them, but in September I
found them in the spot they were left – The Post Office authorities in
Manyema had neglected to furnish the postman with velocipedes, and as I
never saw these machines I could not urge their adoption and brought the
answers to Ujiji myself" (Livingstone 1871d). Elsewhere, Livingstone
provides more information on sending letters from Manyema at this time: "Manyema
country is an entirely new field, and nothing like postage exists, nor can
letters be sent to Ujiji except by large trading parties who have spent two
or three years in Manyema" ([1871a] 1872:8). Although the subsequent fate
of the letter is unknown, it is likely that Stanley – after his famous
meeting with Livingstone in late 1871 – carried the letter back to England
in 1872 where it was delivered to Waller (for a discussion of the letters
Stanley delivered for Livingstone, see Clendennen and Cunningham
Manyema Also Manyuema or Maniema. A region in eastern Congo (now the Democratic Republic of Congo)
roughly bordering the Lomami River to the west, Katanga to the south, Lakes Tanganyika and Kivu to the east, and the territory of Stanley Falls to the north (Cornet 1955:10). An ethnographic map of the region is in Raucq (1952:n.pag).
Waller Horace Waller (1833-96) was a missionary, priest,
and abolitionist as well as a great admirer of Livingstone. He joined the
Universities’ Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) in 1859 and traveled to
East Africa in 1861, where he first met Livingstone who was then in the midst
of the ill-fated Zambesi Expedition (1858-64). The two soon developed a
vibrant friendship because of their shared interest in abolition and their
mutual regard. The men, writes Helly (1987:31), "talked for hours on
end about the strategies Englishmen might use to bring about the
regeneration of Africa." After Livingstone’s body and notebooks were
brought back to England, Livingstone’s children asked Waller to edit the
diaries for publication. These were published as
Livingstone’s Last Journals (Livingstone 1874) and from Waller’s
time to the present have played a major role in shaping the popular image
of Livingstone as both "a gentle, saintly martyr" and abolitionist
crusader (Helly 2008; for more on Waller’s strategic editing of the
diaries, see Helly 1987).
your 3 letters of Octr Novr Decr 1869 Two of these letters survive,
those of 25 October 1869 and 24 November 1869, and are held in the Waller Papers at the Rhodes House Library in Oxford (Waller 1869a, 1869b).
Separately, the Waller Papers also include the envelope for the November
letter (Waller 1869c; Marion Lowman, Rhodes House Library, Oxford, provided the above
information). These details suggest that Waller either sent the December
1869 letter separately, or that there were only two letters (October and
November) and Livingstone mentioned the third by mistake.
In another letter (Livingstone 1871d; for the wording, see the note for
"Bambarre" above), Livingstone only refers to two letters from
"you gave Kirk … to me"
Waller had written to Livingstone that "I shall let Kirk tell you all the
news because I have written to him with that intent for I find it so
likely you will come out viâ the Nile that one catalogue of items will do better for the
purpose than two" (Waller 1869b).
Kirk Sir John Kirk (1832-1922), doctor, naturalist, and
later political agent. Kirk served as Livingstone’s chief assistant
during the Zambesi Expedition, and was appointed Surgeon to the British
Agency in Zanzibar in 1866 through Livingstone’s influence. During the
period in question Kirk was acting Consul and Political Resident at
Zanzibar (Jeal 1973:299, 322; McMullen 2004).
Muff "A foolish, stupid, feeble, or incompetent person;
spec. one who is clumsy or awkward in some sport or manual skill."
Dictionary (accessed 2 June 2010).
Two great friends … afterwards
"Dotheboys Hall" is
the brutal boarding school in Charles Dickens’s
Nicholas Nickleby (1839), which is based on a school Dickens
visited in Yorkshire where the children were bullied, flogged, and
half-starved. Livingstone’s allusion to the schooling of his three sons
– Robert, Thomas, and Oswell – refers to the period after the
Missionary Travels (1857), sales of which enabled Livingstone to
deposit more than £9,000 with Coutts Bank by the spring of 1858 (Ross 2002:115).
When Livingstone set out on the Zambesi Expedition, "the care of the
children was shared by a board of trustees and Livingstone's spinster
sisters in Hamilton" (Jeal 1973:279). The trustees included Livingstone’s
friend James Young, a scientist and entrepreneur he had known since his
schooldays (Ross 2002:189). An unofficial trustee was the Quaker Joseph
Bevan Braithwaite, who lived in Kendal and was a barrister and legal
adviser to Livingstone (Nicholls 1998:38). The boys attended Gilbertfield
(near Hamilton) and the Quaker school in Kendal (Cumbria), among others.
Neither the two friends nor the specific Scottish school referenced here
have been conclusively identified, but in a letter dated 19 February 1862,
Livingstone did express concerns about Thomas’s health while the latter
was at Kendal (qtd. in Holmes 1993:206).
I am glad … to do See
Waller 1869a and 1869b.
my three boys Robert Livingstone (1846-64), Thomas Livingstone (1849-76), and William Oswell Livingstone (1851-92).
Youngs trip … Musas lies Waller
wrote that "The Geographical Society might in short be called the
Livingstone Society for the last 2 years[.] The report of your murder, Sir
Roberick's vehement denial, Young's most successful clear-up of Moosa's
lie have all united to surround you with a halo of romance such as you
can't imagine […]" (Waller 1869a). Musa was the leader of the ten
men from Johanna (Anjouan), Comoros, who accompanied Livingstone during
his last journey. In late 1866, while Livingstone’s party was just west
of Lake Nyassa, they heard rumors that the country ahead had been overrun
by hostile Mazitu (Ngoni). As a result, Musa persuaded his associates to
desert Livingstone and the ten men returned to Zanzibar, where they
announced Livingstone’s murder at the hands of the Mazitu. In response,
in mid 1867 the Royal Geographical Society launched the Livingstone Search
Expedition, headed by E.D. Young, who had previously been a member of
Livingstone’s Zambesi Expedition. The expedition gathered ample evidence
that Livingstone was alive and that Musa and his men had fabricated a
series of lies (Jeal 1974:308; Bridges 1968:92-94; Young 1868a; 1868b; cf.
Livingstone 1870-71b:XX; 1874,2:74).
successful laying of the Atlantic cable After several unsuccessful attempts, the transatlantic telegraph cable was finally laid in 1866.
Livingstone would not have this fact confirmed for him until his meeting with Stanley (Livingstone 1866-72:28 Oct. 1871; 1874,2:156).
my Canadian brother John Livingstone (1811-99).
"last cable news … mourning" This "cable news"
was probably based on the report of the recently completed Livingstone
Search Expedition (Young 1868a; 1868b; see above). A letter to John
Livingstone, composed before June 1869, was among the 42 letters allegedly
destroyed by the Arab Governor Said bin Salem Buraschid (Livingstone
[1870a] 1879:481; 1870-71b:XXXIII; 1874:280; and see below). Livingstone’s
letter may have been written in response to the one cited here.
new Government … ministers Waller
had written to Livingstone that "By the slowest degrees people are beginning to learn
there is a slave trade on the East Coast of Africa. We have just the right
men in office to take it up and tho I do not like John Bright a bit, he
and above all the Duke of Argyll will never let it drop if urged by you
[…]" (Waller 1869a). The First Gladstone Ministry
(1868-74) came into power in December 1868, with John Bright serving as
the President of the Board of Trade and the Duke of Argyll as the
Secretary of State for India.
Ten men here come from Kirk On 8 July 1868, while near
Lake Bangweolo, Livingstone (1868a) had written to Kirk asking for
supplies to be sent to Ujiji. Upon arrival at Ujiji in March 1869,
Livingstone discovered that these goods had been pilfered. As a result, he
wrote again (Livingstone [1869a] n.d.) to Kirk on 30 May 1869 asking for
"fifteen good boatmen to act as carriers if required" as well as a
variety of goods. In response, Kirk hired a group of Banian slaves to carry
the required goods; the party left Zanzibar in October 1869. Following the
example of their two leaders, the slaves then proceeded to plunder
Livingstone’s goods and, as Livingstone ([1871b] 1872) wrote, "spent
fourteen months between the coast and Ujiji, a distance which could have
easily been accomplished in three." Seven of the slaves. along with
another group of men returning to a camp near Bambarre, finally reached
Livingstone on 4 February 1871.
in the midst … Cape Cholera is caused by the bacterium
Vibrio cholerae, which is found in water or food contaminated by the
excrement of its victims. Symptoms include agonizing cramps, diarrhea and
desperate thirst. Dehydration triggers medical shock causing heart attack
and organ damage: "A toxin is released which sheds the layer of the
outer bowel; death may occur within two hours of onset" (McLynn
1992:248). This fatal Asiatic "fecal-oral" disease originated in the
Ganges River in India and was transmitted through the maritime trade of
the East India Company to Persia (modern Iran), from where it spread via
trade and pilgrimage routes to Mecca and Medina, and thence to Africa
(Afkami 1998:206). In 1869 and 1870 the epidemic devastated Zanzibar. In
his diary, Livingstone (1870-71a:LXXIX; 1874,2:96) elaborates on the
information given here: "70,000 thousand [sic] victims in Zanzibar
alone! and it spread inland to the Masai and Ugogo – cattle shivered,
and fell dead [–] The fishes in the sea died in great numbers – Here
the fowls were first seized and died then men – […] Formerly the pest
kept along the seashore now it goes far inland and will spread all over
Africa – This we get from Mecca filth – nothing was done to prevent
the place being made a perfect cesspool of animals' guts & ordure of
Mecca Medina & Judda Cities visited by large numbers
of Muslims during the yearly Hajj (pilgrimage), with the first two named
being, respectively, the first and second holiest cities in Islam. "Judda"
is Livingstone’s spelling of Jeddah.
the new political economy … alone
Livingstone here critiques the economic and social doctrines of the
so-called Manchester School of businessmen and politicians. This movement,
an outgrowth of the Anti-Corn Law League of Richard Cobden and John Bright
(the latter of whom Livingstone mentions elsewhere in his letter, see
above), drew on the ideas of Adam Smith to advocate for "laissez faire
as the prime determinant" of economic and social policy. The downside to
this approach, as Victorian opponents were quick to point out, was that it
could result in a variety of social ills, especially regarding working and
living conditions (Altick 1973:128-39), a point to which Livingstone here
All the able bodied all off ivory collecting Arab traders
had only begun to explore the ivory-rich territories of southern Maniema
and Legaland to the north in the previous decade or so. As a result,
there was still a great deal of inexpensive ivory to be found. Livingstone
([1871c] 1872-73:70) wrote that the traders had "got into a sort of
frenzy on finding that all ivory which has fallen for ages just lay in the
dense forest where the animals had been slain; and if the people were
civily treated, they brought the precious tusks to them for a few thick
copper bracelets." The scale of Arab endeavor also caught Livingstone’s
attention: "One trading party I met had 18,000 lbs. weight of ivory;
another I came part of the way out with had 35,000 lbs. of it; none came
the Standard Waller sent Livingstone a copy of the 24 November 1869 issue of
The Standard along with the three letters mentioned in the opening
of Livingstone's letter. A note in Waller's hand on the back of the envelope
that contained the letters (Waller 1869c) also mentions this issue:
"I have sent you a newspaper too.
HW." Later, when Livingstone ran short of paper, he wrote his diary for 23 March 1871 to 11 August 1871 across the pages of this
copy of The Standard using ink made from the seeds of a local
plant. All the pages of this diary (Livingstone 1870-71b), many now virtually impossible to decipher, are held at the David Livingstone Centre.
For more on this diary, see Introduction.
have not seen … clubs Waller had written to Livingstone
that The Times "hates everything African and is as infamous a
publication as ever. It put in Cooly's [sic] letter making you out all that
was idiotic and bombastic but shut me out when I answered the letter"
(Waller 1869a). For the letter Waller cites, see Cooley 1869.
Cooleys ill natured twaddle as "geography"
Desborough Cooley (1795?–1883), geographer and founder of the Hakluyt
Society. Through his early work on mapping the interior of Africa (using
classical sources and contemporary first-hand accounts), Cooley built his
reputation as a geographical authority. Later critiques and "corrections"
of leading nineteenth-century explorers, however, transformed Cooley into
one of the most notorious "armchair geographers" of his day (Bridges
1976a, 1976b, 2004, 2007).
I would not answer … for ever In an 1864 paper read
before the Royal Geographical Society but never published in full, Cooley
drew on the "accounts of several Portuguese travellers" to argue –
in stark contrast to recent claims by Livingstone – for "the total
separation of the rivers Liambeji and Zambesi (the upper and lower courses
of the Zambesi)" and offered "a large map" to illustrate his views
(Cooley 1864:256; cf. Bridges 1976a:38).
My work leads … [cont. to page 1v] … Zanzibar As Jeal
(1974:323-35) writes, "Livingstone […] came to the conclusion that
there were three main interconnecting ‘lines of drainage’ in central
Africa, running roughly parallel with each other from south to north. […]
The central line itself ran from Lake Bangweolo, through Moero and then on
north as the Lualaba. The eastern line […] began at a point just north
of Lake Moero, where the Lualaba split in two, sending the main body of
its water due north, to continue as the central line, and the rest of its
water north-east into the western side of Lake Tanganyika." As a result,
Lakes Tanganyika and Albert, which Livingstone believed to be "connected
by a river flowing from the northern end of Tanganyika to the southern end
of Albert," served as "the eastern line of drainage," or what
Livingstone in the letter here calls "the Eastern arm followed down by
Speke Grant & Baker." The western line took the most intriguing
course, according to Livingstone’s theory ([1870d] 1873-74:265-66): "West
of this Lualaba, the central line of drainage of the Great Nile Valley,
there are two large rivers, each having the same native name Lualaba.
These two unite and form a large lake, which I am fain to call Lake
Lincoln. Looking back from this lake to the Sources on the watershed, a
remarkable mound gives out four fountains not more than 10 miles apart.
Two of these on the northern side form large rivers, which again form Lake
Lincoln, and then the united stream coming out thence flows, I suppose,
into the western arm of the Nile." The two fountains ten miles to the
south, in turn, gave rise to "the Liamba or Upper Zambesi" and "the
Kafui." Livingstone ([1870a] 1879:480; cf. Herodotus 1987:141-45)
concluded from this analysis that the four fountains were "probably the
Nile fountains, which were described to Herodotus as unfathomable, and
sending one-half of the water to Egypt, the other half to inner Ethiopia."
Jeal (1974:324) includes comparative maps that show the hydrography of
Central Africa as it is and as Livingstone believed it to be.
Speke Grant & Baker John Hanning Speke (1827-64),
explorer, hunter, and the first European to see Lake Victoria, now
considered the "source" of the Nile. James Augustus Grant (1827-92),
explorer, accompanied Speke on his second expedition to the African lakes
region (1860-63). Samuel White Baker (1821-93), explorer, hunter, and the
first European to see Lake Albert.